PARTITION OF INDIA Full Notes
Today we will try to find out how Partition of India happened and what were the reasons behind it, what was the truth. Under the Cabinet Mission Plan, the Congress formed an interim government in India in collaboration with the Muslim League, but the Muslim League continued to act only in the interim government. Expecting cooperation from her was also pure folly because she was committed to building Pakistan. The fire of communalism spread throughout the country and there were chaos and unrest. The British Prime Minister Attlee organized a conference in London to resolve India’s odd communal problem and to protect the cabinet plan, but still, the Congress and the League could not be reached. When the situation of India was getting out of the control of the British Government, it thought it appropriate to leave India on the condition of Indians. British Prime Minister Attlee announced that power would be handed over to the Indians before June 1948. The then Viceroy of India did not agree with this announcement, so he resigned and Lord Mountbatten came to India as Interim Viceroy.
Mountbatten Plan (MOUNTBATTEN PLAN)
Viceroy Lord Mountbatten, after talking to the leaders of India, came to the conclusion that the Partition of India would happen under any circumstances. Although Mahatma Gandhi made a lot of effort to stop this partition by meeting Mountbatten, he failed. Lord Mountbatten went to London and returned here after interacting with the officials there and on 3 June 1947 published a scheme known as “Mountbatten Plan”. According to this plan, it was decided that the British government would hand over the administration of India to a government that was created by the will of the people, and it was also decided that the provinces which do not want to join the Indian Union gave the right to self-determination. will go.
If the residents of the Muslim-majority region support the partition of the country, a commission will be appointed to determine the border of India and Pakistan. The Mountbatten plan was first accepted by the Muslim League, later the Congress accepted it after the division of votes. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad had said that “after the Mountbatten Plan, the hope of maintaining the unity of India has disappeared in every way”. It is clear that the Mountbatten Plan was implemented on the basis of the partition of the country and India was divided into two parts.
On July 4, 1947, the Indian Independence Act was introduced, according to which on August 15, 1947, India was divided into two kingdoms. The British government handed over power to the Constituent Assembly of both the colonies and until the constitution was made, the colonies ruled as per the Government of India Act of 1935 and the Constituent Assembly continued to function as a legislature. The task of demarcation in Punjab and Bengal was handed over to the Border Commission, headed by Radcliffe. Thus, the Partition of India was achieved through the Mountbatten Plan and independence was achieved through the Independence Act. In this way, the notion of a united India became a dream. India became independent but it had to pay a big price for this.
Reasons for the partition of India – CAUSES OF PARTITION OF INDIA
The religious fanaticism of Muslims
The principle of the British was to divide and rule. Religious bigotry of Muslims is very much responsible for the Partition of India. They lacked education and were indifferent to modern ideology. He gave special importance to religion. The sentiment was propagated among Muslims that in a Hindu majority nation like India it is not possible to protect the selfishness of Muslims and their welfare can only be achieved by the creation of a separate nation. Although the Indian National Congress attempted to forge a cordial relationship with the Muslim League, Muhammad Ali Jinnah was not ready to change the policy of the League at all.
British encourage communalism
The British rulers left no stone unturned in promoting communalism in India. After the rebellion of 1857, the British tried to divide the Muslims by patronizing them because they realized that after Hindu-Muslim unity it would be difficult to rule India. He gave reservations to the Muslims in the name of the minority and weakened the national movement. In 1909, giving separate representation to Muslims became the backdrop of the partition of India.
Congress appeasement politics
From the very beginning, the Congress had given a lot of hurdle in their mind by adopting a policy of satisfying the Muslims, as a result of which they started demanding a separate nation. This appeasement policy of Congress was his grave mistake. According to the Lucknow Accord, the Muslims were given separate representation on the basis of their population. Then the weakness of untouchable castes, which the Congress introduced in relation to the communal decision of 1932 for fear of separation, increased the morale of the Muslims. Congress could not take any clear decision regarding the future of Muslims in independent India and on the other hand, Jinnah had the same slogan that “Hindus and Muslims are two separate nations”.
The then circumstances of India were also responsible for the Partition of India. The situation arising out of the Quit India Movement and World War, the inclusion of the Muslim League in the interim government, and the differences between the Congress and the League led to the partition of India.